PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC)
OR PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER is an industrial digital computer which has been well built and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly
lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
They were first developed in the automobile industry to provide flexible, ruggedized and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays and timers.
Since then they have been widely adopted as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments.
A PLC is an example of a “hard” real-time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result.
PLCs can range from small “building brick” devices with tens of I/O in a housing integral with the processor, to large rack-mounted modular devices with a count of thousands of I/O, and which are often networked to other PLC and SCADA systems.
They can be designed for multiple arrangements of digital and analog inputs and outputs (I/O), extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact.
Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory.